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Category of the word


special meaning:

Особое значение

The contacts between different countries, the study of foreign languages acquires special significance

Academic English

Mean of international communication

a quality or way of doing something that is in the middle of two completely different qualities or ways of doing something:

Средство международного общения

English which has now become one of the most important means of international communication.

Academic English

the requirements of scientific communication

something that you must do, or something you need for scientific communication

Условия научной коммуникации

At the same time, the number of specialists whose command of the language meets the requirements of scientific communication is far from what is required.

Academic English

state of affairs

important government matters

Положение дел

This unfavourable state of affairs can be accounted for by the fact that the system of language teaching

Academic English

the system of language teaching

a particular method of counting, measuring, or weighing things for language teaching

Система обучения языку

This unfavourable state of affairs can be accounted for by the fact that the system of language teaching

Academic English/ General English

the only approach to this problem

an act of communicating with another person or group in order to ask for something:

Только сближение

There can be little doubt that the only approach to this problem consists in drastically changing…..

Academic English


an occasion at which people who have great knowledge of a particular subject meet in order to discuss a matter of interest:


they need for discussing their own professional subjects at different international conferences, symposia, congresses, etc.

Academic English


a person who studies a subject in great detail, especially at a university:


Scholars all over the world agree that foreign language teaching must be learner-oriented….

Academic English

Authoritative publications

Publications containing complete and accurate information, and therefore respected, the act of making information or stories available to people in a printed or electronic form:

Авторитетные издания

In the most authoritative publications on the subject special emphasis is now being laid on the professional needs of the learner.

Academic English/ General English

The professional needs of the learner

the particular things needed by or provided to help people who have an illness or condition that makes it difficult for them to do the things that other people do:

Профессиональные нужды изучающих


Academic English


an attempt to do something:


It follows, then, that foreign language teaching necessarily becomes professionally oriented: the learner cannot possibly endeavour to produce language “in general”;

General English

a variety of language

the characteristic of often changing and being different:

Разновидность языка

It follows, then, that foreign language teaching necessarily becomes professionally oriented: the learner cannot possibly endeavour to produce language “in general”; to be able to use a foreign language as a means of effective international communication he must begin by getting acquainted with the basic language of his profession, with a variety of language he can use for his specific purposes, i.e. as “the tool of his trade”.

General English

specific purposes

determination or a feeling of having a reason for what you do:

Специальные цели


General english

“the tool of his trade”.

business activity:

Орудие бизнеса


General English/ terms

artificial code

made by people, often as a copy of something natural:

Код созданный людьми

It should be borne in mind that ESP is not a closed, artificial code.

General english

a state of constant and unremitting change

never stopping, becoming weaker, or failing changes


It is a living variety of English which like all natural human languages is in a state of constant and unremitting change

Academic english

The analysis of LSP texts


Анализ текстов для специальных целей

The analysis of LSP texts is carried out on the phonetic, lexical, morphological and syntactic levels.

Academic english

the basic lexical strata

one of the parts or layers into which something is separated:

Базовый лексический уровень

The study of the vocabulary of these texts enables scholars to single out the basic lexical strata of the register of scientific discourse

Academic english

the register of scientific discourse


Регистр научного дискурса


Academic english

the choice and arrangements of words

an agreement between two people or groups about how something happens or will happen:

Выбор и согласование слов

It should be added in this connection that scholars arrived at very significant conclusions concerning the choice and arrangements of words in the flow of speech.

General english

the flow of speech

the movement of something in one direction:

Поток речи


General english

strict accordance

following or obeying a rule, law, wish, etc.

Прямое согласие

Students were actually shown how to arrange lexical units in strict accordance with the rules of collocation (lexical-phraseological combinability of words) and colligation (morphosyntactic combinability of words).

Academic english

the rules of collocation

a word or phrase that is often used with another word or phrase, in a way that sounds correct to people who have spoken the language all their lives, but might not be expected from the meaning:

Правила коллокаций


General english

lexical-phraseological combinability of words


Лексическо-фразеологическая сочетаемость слов


Academic english


be or cause to be juxtaposed or grouped in a syntactic relation:



Academic english

morphosyntactic combinability of words


Морфосинтаксическая сочетаемость слов


Academic english

morphological oppositions


Морфологическая оппозиция

The morphological analysis of this variety of English yielded some fruitful results in so far as “minimization” of morphological oppositions is concerned.

Academic english

fruitful results

producing good results:

Хорошие результаты


General english

indispensable categories

Something or someone that is indispensable is so good or important that you could not manage without them:

Основные категории

As has been shown the indispensable categories are aspect, voice, tense, taxis and mood.

Academic english

The peripheral complications

describes something that is not as important as something else, something that makes a situation more difficult, or the act of doing this:

Усложнения по переферии

The peripheral complications like “I shall have been studying”, “They will have been studied, “Had they been introduced?” etc. being carefully kept out.

Academic english

analysis of the structure


Анализ структуры

From the syntactic point of view the study of the texts under discussion began with the detailed analysis of the structure of the paragraph, for the optimal division of the text contributes greatly to the more effective passing on the information contained in the text.

Academic english

the optimal division

best; most likely to bring success or advantage

Успешное разделение


Academic english


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